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What Is Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)

Java Developers found that they require a frame work that will allow to  build a uniform interface over the database connectivity systems such a framework would allow programmer to write a single  database interface over many Platforms this frame work is known as the java database connectivity interface.

JDBC Architecture

JDBC is closely modeled on the SQL call level interface. JDBC layer comprises of two main layers:- a.)JDBC API b) JDBC Driver API .The JDBC API is the layer with which the java program interfaces It basically defines set of classes for use in  java applet /applications which are independent of the underlying database.The JDBC Driver API on the other hand ,provides link between the database and JDBC API. The JDBC Driver API layer is provided by the database Vendor.

JDBC API is made up of 4 main interfaces
1. java.sql.DriverManager
2. java.sql.Connection
3. java.sql.Statement
4. java.sql.ResultSet
 
In addition to these, the following support interfaces are also available
  java.sql.CallableStatement
  java.sql.PreparedStatement
  java.sql.ResultSetMetadata
  java.sql.DatabaseMetaData

    The JDBC API uses a Driver Manager and database-specific drivers to provide transparent connectivity to heterogeneous databases. The JDBC driver manager ensures that the correct driver is used to access each data source. The Driver Manager is capable of supporting multiple concurrent drivers connected to multiple heterogeneous databases. A JDBC driver translates standard JDBC calls into a network or database protocol or into a database library API call that facilitates communication with the database. This translation layer provides JDBC applications with database independence. If the back-end database changes, only the JDBC driver need be replaced with few code modifications required. There are four distinct types of JDBC drivers

Following Figure Elaborate On The Above Mention Theory

JDBC Architecture